Ilm al-Jarh wat Ta’deel…. An Introduction

There are numerous types and categories of Uloom al-Hadeeth. Among the Mutaqaddimeen, Imaam Haakim al-Neesaaboori (rahimahullah) has mentioned 52 types in his book “Ma’rifah Uloom al-Hadeeth”. Ibn as-Salaah in “Muqaddimah Ibn as-Salaah”, Imaam Nawawi in “al-Taqreeb fun Usool al-Hadeeth” and Ibn al-Mulaqqin in “Al-Muqni fi Uloom al-Hadeeth” have mentioned 65 types, while Suyooti has mentioned 93 types of Uloom al-Hadeeth in “Tadreeb ar-Raawi fi Sharh Taqreeb al-Nawawi”

Allaamah Suyooti has said:

I know that many types of modern science are not.

“There are numerous types of Uloom al-Hadeeth which can not be counted”

[Tadreeb ar-Raawi fi Sharh Taqreeb an-Nawawi: P. 22]

Allaamah Haazmi is said to have stated:

Modern science includes many kinds of hundred, of each type of independent science, if the student realized what a close-old spent the

“Ilm al-Hadeeth Consists Of Numerous Categories Exceeding The Number Of 100; each category among them is an independent science, if a student was to spend his whole life in it, he would not be able to reach its end. “


One Of The And Most Important Sciences Among Them Is The Science Of “Jarh And Ta’deel”

The Literal meaning of Jarh:

The word “Jarh” comes from ((injured injured)) From the Baab ((P)). In literal sense, it can have many meanings, for example: If this word is from the Baab of ((Q)) Then it refers to the “Weakness of Testimony” as Ferozabaadi and Zubaydee write:

Injuring his surgery and wounded his testimony

[Al-Qaamoos al-Muheet: 1/328]

And if it is with a Damma on Jeem then it comes in the meaning: to injure with a pointed thing or an iron as it is said:

The impact of the armed

[Lisaan al-Arab: 2/233]

From the Baab of ((P)), It means: “to defame or revile”, “to invalidate the testimony of a witness”, and “criticizing with tongue”, eg it is said:

So and so wound with his tongue if Sepah and cursing

[Lisaan al-Arab (2/234), Al-Qaamoos al-Muheet (1/328), Taaj al-Uroos (4/24)]

The people of Language also use this word to criticize the testimony of a witness as Ibn Manzoor (rahimahullah) writes:

It is said the ruling injured witness if he were found by the fall of fairness lied and others.

“And it is said that a ruler criticized a witness when he came to know of his weakness which would invalidate his Adaalah such as Lying etc”

[Lisaan al-Arab (2/234)]

Zamakhshari has used this word in the meaning of “Fasaad (transgression)” and he took evidence from the sermon of Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwaan:

Aztkm and may not abound on the advice but Astjeraha (corrupt)

[Al-Zamakhshari: 1/208]

The Technical Meaning of Jarh:

In technical meaning, Jarh refers to the appearance of a trait in a narrator which would prove the deficiency in his Adaalah and the weakness in his Hifdh and Dhabt. Ibn al-Atheer writes:

Description wound Matti joined the narrator and witness account, saying he fell, and his action hero

“Jarh is a trait (accusation) which if found in a narrator and a witness then trusting his saying becomes invalid, and acting upon it becomes Baatil”

[Jaami al-Usool fi Ahaadeeth ar-Rasool: 1/126]

Abdul Fattaah Abu Ghuddah explains this as follows:

The wound is innuendo in the narrator including undermines the fairness or set

“Jarh is to criticize a narrator concerning his Adaalah or Dhabt”

[Lamhaat (P. 93)]

‘Ajjaaj al-Khateeb writes while describing the meaning of Tajreeh that:

Description narrator qualities require weakening his novel or non-acceptance.

“A narrator being described with attributes which would deem his narration weak or unacceptable”

[Usool al-Hadeeth (P. 103)]

The Literal meaning of Ta’deel:

This word comes from “Adl”

Justice: against injustice: what he had in the soul it straight

“Al-Adl: it’s the opposite of Injustice: something which stands out in heart; that is Mustaqeem “

[Lisaan al-Arab (9/83), Taaj al-Uroos (10/471), Al-Qaamoos al-Muheet (2/1361)]

Putting something on its correct place is also called Ta’deel:

Amendment: Settlement: The calendar and its budget to other thing:

“Al-Ta’deel: to correct something: and comparing it with some other thing”

[Lisaan al-Arab: 11/432]

Issuing a Saheeh and correct verdict is also called Adl:

Justice ruling in the judgment ruling right

“A ruler giving fair verdict with truth”

[Lisaan al-Arab (9/83), Taaj al-Uroos (15/471)]

The technical meaning of Ta’deel:

In Istalaah, Ta’deel refers to being ascribed with “Adaalah (uprightness)” and “Dhabt (precision)”.

Abdul Fattaah Abu Ghuddah writes:

“Is a judgment on the narrator as amended officer”

“It refers to a narrator being ruled with uprightness and precision”

[Lamhaat min Taareekh as-Sunnah wa Uloom al-Hadeeth (P. 93)]

Imaam Haakim writes concerning the attribute of Adaalah of a narrator that:

“The updated continued to be a Muslim justice does not call for heresy not announce what types of sin fall by fairness”

“And the default in the Adaalah of a Muhaddith is that he is a Muslim, he does not call towards his Bid’ah, nor does he indulge into the kind of sins which would revolt his Adaalah”

[Ma’rifah Uloom al-Hadeeth (P. 53)]

The introduction of Ilm Jarh and Ta’deel:

Taash Kubra writes while making an introduction to this science:

“Is the science of looking for how the conversations touch upon the Prayer is the messenger of peace and in terms of the conditions of narrators restraint and fairness in terms of how the bond or a phone outage, and other conditions that are known to critics conversations”

“This is a science in which is discussed about the conditions of Ittisaal (connection) of Ahaadeeth with the Messenger (May peace and blessings be upon him) with regard to the conditions of its narrators as in precision and uprightness, and with regard to the condition of the chain whether its connected or disconnected, and other aspects from the conditions which are known to the critiques of ahaadeeth. “

[Miftaah as-Si’aadah (1/397)]

Nawaab Siddeeq Hasan Khaan writes:

“Is the science of looking for the best evaluator of narrators injured verbally and on the specific orders of those words”

“It is a science in which is discussed about the criticism of narrators and their praise with specific words and from the levels of those words”

[Abjad al-Uloom (2/179), Muqaddimah Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi (11/141)]

Ajjaaj al-Khateeb explains this as follows:

“He is aware of looking at the conditions of the narrators in terms of acceptance of their stories or refund”

“It is a science in which the conditions of narrators with regard to accepting or rejecting their narrations is discussed”

[Usool al-Hadeeth (P. 261)]

The Basis of Jarh wa Ta’deel:

The following verse of Surah al-Hujuraat has been declared the basis of this entire science:

“… O ye who believe! If someone punk news, Vtbeno”

“O you who have believed, if there comes to you a disobedient one with information, investigate”

[49: 6]

Although this verse was revealed on a specific occasion, but in it Allaah Ta’ala has guided the Muslims to a principle that when an important news comes based on which a big decision is to be taken, then investigate the condition of the person who brought this news before extracting any conclusions from it. If he is a Faasiq (disobedient) ie whose apparent condition suggests that his news is not worth trusting, then investigate before acting upon his report, and you must adopt a permanent conduct of investigation and inquiry.

Imaam Muslim writes under the explanation of this verse that:

“The news of the reprobate plopped unacceptable”

“The report of a Faasiq is invalid and unacceptable”

[Muqaddimah Saheeh Muslim (1/9)]

This verse apparently only tells us to investigate the narration of a Faasiq, but if we examine and analyze then it becomes evident that the awareness of someone being a Faasiq can only be achieved in a condition when we know his conditions, his life, his days and nights, his good and bad etc.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself has also stressed, through his sayings, that it is necessary to examine the authenticity and reliability of the report and the reporter.

He says:

“Enough is enough lying for a man falsely that everything that he hears ‏””

“It is enough lying for a person to relate everything he hears”

[Muqaddimah Saheeh Muslim (5)]

Hence, these texts are enough for the basic foundation of this science. The need of research and investigation becomes especially important when the narration of a narrator is related to the basis and the foundation of Sharee’ah and Deen.

Jarh wa Ta’deel in Qur’aan:

Apart from this reasoning, Jarh and Ta’deel is found in the verses of Qur’aan itself as there are many places in Qur’aan where the Tawtheeq of Sahaabah Karaam has been done by Allaah himself.

The Most High Lord says:

“The former ancients of immigrants and supporters who Atbaohm in truth, God bless them, and they with him

“And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhaajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct – Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him”

[Tawbah 9: 100]

“These are honest”

“It is those who are the truthful.”

[Al-Hujuraat 49:15]

“Those are the successful”

“It is those who will be the successful”

[Al-Hashr 59: 9]

“Are the winners”

“They are the attainers [of success]”

[Al-Hashr 59:20]

“Steadfast and truthful and Aleghantin and spenders and pray for forgiveness before dawn”

“The patient, the true, the obedient, those who spend [in the way of Allah], and those who seek forgiveness before dawn”

[Aal-e-Imraan 3:17]

“Those who believe and those are the dutiful”

“Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous”

[Al-Baqarah 2: 177]

Similarly, besides Ta’deel we also find Jarh in Qur’aan:

“Those are the transgressors”

“Those are the defiantly disobedient”

[An-Noor 24: 4 & Al-Hashr 59:19]

“Those are the losers”

“It is those who are the losers.”

[Al-A’raaf 7: 178]

“Those are the heedless”

“It is they who are the heedless.”

[Al-A’raaf 7: 179]

“They are polytheists”

“And they are Mushrikoon (associate others with Allaah)”

[Yoosuf 12: 106]

“They do not feel”

“And they do not perceive”

[Yoosuf 12: 107]


Jarh wa Ta’deel in Hadeeth:

Besides Qur’aan, we also find many examples of it in the Sunnah; and under this heading, Scholars have mentioned some instances where the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) himself has done Jarh and Ta’deel.

Faatimah bint Qays (radiallah anha) said that I said to the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam):

“O Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) Abu Jahm and Mu’aawiyah bin Abi Sufyaan have sent proposal of marriage to me”, so he (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “As for Abu Jahm, he does not put down his stick from his shoulder, and as for Mu’aawiyah he is a poor man who has no property “

[Saheeh Muslim, Kitaab at-Talaaq (3697)]

Similarly, it is narrated from Sayyidah Aa’ishah (radiallah anhu) that the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said while doing Jarh on a person:

“Evil son of the clan” or “evil brother of the clan”

“What an evil man of the tribe he is!” Or “What an evil brother of the tribe he is!”

[Saheeh Bukhaari (6032)]

While doing Ta’deel of Abdullah bin Umar (radiallah anhu), the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:

“The man Abdullah Saleh”

“Indeed Abdullah is a righteous man”

[Saheeh Bukhaari (374)]

Similarly the following saying of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) is also a Ta’deel:

“The good folks horns, then those who follow them, then those who follow them,”

“The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then those who follow the latter”

[Saheeh al-Bukhaari (6429)]

This proves that the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) revealed the defects of people and praised them based on the benefit of people.

The Need & the Importance of this Science

Based on the above mentioned basis from the Qur’aan and Hadeeth, it is of extreme importance in Ilm al-Hadeeth to investigate and research about the Narrators of Hadeeth. That is because, if not until the narrators are tested through the strict scrutiny of Jarh and Ta’deel in relation to their Adaalah and Dhabt, none of their sayings or narrations will be considered trustworthy. Like this, neither would any reliable compilation of hadeeth have come into existence nor would the pure Sharee’ah have remained complete without its second basic source. Hence, the Liars and the trustworthy ones are distinguished through this act and thus authentic narrations are separated from the weak and fabricated ones.

Ajjaaj al-Khateeb writes while describing the importance of this science:

“It is the people of modern science, and Oazamha affair and far-reaching, characterized Azbh right of the sick, and acceptable yield”

“And this is the greatest of Ilm from the Uloom al-Hadeeth in rank, and the farther in benefit. The authentic from the weak, and the accepted from the rejected it distinguished through this science. “

[Usool al-Hadeeth Uloomuhu wa Mustalahahu (P. 261) & Al-Mukhtasar al-Wajeez (P. 103)]

While pointing to this aspect, the author of the Muqaddimah of Al-Kaamil fi Du’afa ar-Rijaal says:

“This is the men balance, a balance weighed by Amaaantm, is characterized gold from copper, silver bullet, and this art is the mainstay of the year: If it is characterized by the right of the sick and has exposed the weak and the liars of the narrators and the establishment of bearing down on them maintenance of religion, which is the duty of Muslims”

“This is a scale of men; it is a scale with which their ma’adin are measured, thus with it, the gold is distinguished from the copper and the silver from the lead, and this field is the pillar of Sunnah; It is with this science that the authentic is distinguished from the weak, and it is with it that the conditions of Weak and Liar narrators is revealed and abstinence is established (from their narrations) for the sake of Deen, and this is an obligatory matter upon the Muslims “

[Al-Kaamil (1/34)]

The importance and need of this science is also apparent from the fact that Imaam Nawawi has brought a chapter on this, saying:

“Bab statement that the attribution of the debt and that the novel is not only trustworthy and wounding narrators including what is permissible, but a duty and it is not backbiting but of defending the law Mecca”

“Chapter: the clarification that the isnaad is from The religion, and narration is only from the Trustworthy, and that the criticism of narrators due to what is found in them is permissible, rather it is obligatory, and that it is not from the impermissible backbiting, rather it is from the defense of the noble Islamic religion “

[Sharh an-Nawawi Ala Saheeh Muslim (1/84)]

Its Genesis & Origin:

The un-compiled or un-official form of Jarh wa Ta’deel started and existed from the beginning of Islaam because the practice of investigation, caution, and research had always been prevalent among the Muslims from the direct guidance of Qur’aan and the training of Allaah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).

The First Century Hijri:

In this era, the practice of caution in accepting a narration was very common among the Khulafa Raashideen and Many Sahaabah. Some of the important names of Sahaabah in this regard include: Ubaadah bin as-Saamit al-Khazraji al-Ansaari radiallah anhu (D. 34 H), Abdullah bin as-Salaam al-Israa’eelee radiallah anhu (D. 43), Zayd bin Thaabit radiallah anhu (D. 48), Imraan bin Husayn radiallah anhu (D. 52), Abu Hurayrah radiallah anhu (D. 59), Abdullah bin Amr bin al-Aas radiallah anhu (D. 65), Abdullah bin Abbaas al-Qurashi al-Haashimi radiallah anhu (D. 68), Abdullah bin Umar radiallah anhu (D. 73), Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri radiallah anhu (D. 74), and Anas bin Maalik radiallah anhu (D. 90 ).

Whereas among the Taabi’een the names of Sa’eed bin al-Musayyab rahimahullah (D. 94), and Sa’eed bin Jubayr rahimahullah (D. 95) are important.

These people have done Tawtheeq and Tad’eef of people in their own way but it was in its most basic form.


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